The Diffusion and Evolution of 311 Citizen Service Centers in American Cities from 1996 to 2012: A Study to Identify the Catalysts for the Adoption of Citizen Engagement Technology

April 21, 2015 by John Christopher O'Byrne

Access this Publication
This study of the diffusion and evolution of the 311 innovation in the form of citizen service centers and as a technology cluster has been designed to help identify the catalysts for the spread of government-to-citizen (G2C) technology in local government in order to better position future G2C technology for a more rapid rate of adoption. The 311 non-emergency number was first established in 1996 and had spread to 80 local governments across the United States by 2012. This dissertation examines: what factors contributed to the adoption of 311 in American local governments over 100,000 in population; how did the innovation diffuse and evolve over time; and why did some governments’ communications with citizens became more advanced than others?